Crippled by Russia’s termination of manufacturing activity, GM Korea reports a record 986 billion won ($861 million) loss in 2015.

In addition to the one-time writedown for the pullout from Russia last year, the automaker also blames the loss on weakening conditions in emerging markets, which have taken on greater importance since GM Korea stopped selling Chevrolets in Europe three years ago.

The automaker’s wholly-owned Chevrolet Europe subsidiary had lost money since its formation, although it was the conduit through which more than 80% of GM Korea’s vehicles were sold.

Abandoning Europe at the time was seen as an eventual financial benefit, but the move was negated by the cost of the Russian pullout.

GM Korea’s 2015 net loss was 2.8 times greater than the net loss of 353.5 billion won ($308 million) recorded in 2014. The 2015 operating loss of 594.4 billion won ($519 million) was four times greater than the operating loss recorded in 2014.

The company reported 2015 revenue of 11.9 trillion won ($10.4 billion) and global sales of 622,000 vehicles.

The poor earnings performance contrasted with GM Korea’s upbeat first-quarter sales results.

GM Korea reported global sales of 149,948 vehicles from January through March, up 3.2%. Of those vehicles, a high percentage were the diminutive, low-margin new-generation Spark.

The Spark sells domestically in the 10 million-15 million won range ($8,700-$13,000).

In March, Korean sales of 16,868 vehicles bolstered global sales so that they showed an increase of 3.4% with 56,144 units. However, exports were down 4.4% with 39,276 units sold.